More Prone to Marry, Less Egalitarian: Gender Role Attitudes, Employment and Household Labor Among Women with Different Marriage Intensities in Turkey
Ilknur Yuksel Kaptanoglu, Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies
Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies
Faruk Keskin, Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies
In Turkey people, especiallywomen, are supposed to get married in a widespread manner. According to the 2013Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS-2013), 96.9 percent of women aged45-49 are ever-married. Due to universality of marriage in the country, itsintensity differentiates mainly due to timing of marriage among women. Thisstudy is based on this dichotomy of women, reflected in marriage outcomes,specifically the timing of first marriage.This paper investigates how differentials in tendency to marry influencewomens lives in marital relationship in terms of their labor forceparticipation, household division of labor, and attitudes towards intimatepartner violence.
Marriage has been studied mainlyin relation to fertility and sexuality in the classical demographic transitiontheory (Cherlin,2012). However, within the second demographic transition theory, itsassociations are expanded to cover changes in family structure, differentiationof gender roles and extra-marital fertility (Lesthaeghe, 2010; Lesthaeghe and Surkyn; 2008; Lesthaegheand Surkyn, 1988; Van De Kaa, 1987). In demographic studies onmarriage institution in Turkey, marriage has been analyzed mainly on the basisof age at first marriage and fertility relationship (Kavadarlı, 1982;Ünalan, 1994; Koç and Koç, 1998; Tezcan and Coşkun, 2002 and 2004; Yavuz,2012), and characteristics related to the formation of marriages and their effecton demographic events (Hancıoğlu and Ergöçmen, 1992; Civelek andKoç, 2007; Koç and Eryurt, 2013). The number of marriage-related studiesthat take into account gender issues and the disadvantaged positions of womenin the social structure, on the other hand, has been increasing over the years(Behar, 1995; Yuksel-Kaptanoğlu et al., 2012; Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu andErgöçmen, 2012; Özcebe and Biçer, 2013; Yavuz, 2015).
DATA AND METHODOLOGY
The data source of this study isthe TDHS-2013, which is the most recent survey among demographic surveys atfive-year intervals since 1968 in Turkey. Histories on fertility, marriage,employment and migration events of all women were collected in TDHS-2013,differently from previous TDHSs.
This study methodologically consistsof three stages (Figure 1). These stages can be summarized as follows:
· Inthe first stage, factors influencing the transition of all women to marriage since12 years of age were determined using the hazard approach with piece-wiseconstant exponential modelling. Women''s risk of transition to marriage wasanalyzed considering pre-marital characteristics of 9,746 women.
· Inthe second stage, variables that significantly affected the risk of marriage inthe previous stage were used in clustering analysis to form two groups of womenin their first marriages: (i) with high marriage risk (who marry earlier), and (ii)with low marriage risk (who delay marriage) adding up to 6,629 women.
· Inthe third stage, these two groups were compared according to their establishmentof marriages, their attitudes towards violence, and considering five stages ofmarriage their status in public and private spheres as employment and householddivision of labor. Marriage stages were used in a manner similar to family lifecycle approach based on the existence of children and the age of the oldestchild.
According to the results of theevent history analysis, the educational level of women, pre-marital employment,total number of siblings, and urban-rural childhood place of residence werefound as the factors determining the timing of marriage. Based on thesefactors, women were grouped into two using cluster analysis.
Presented in Session 1097: Families and Households