Say Goodbye and Hit the Road. Gender, Education, and Citizenship As Key Factors Among Short-Term Onward Migration Planners
Elisa Barbiano di Belgiojoso, University of Milano - Bicocca
Livia Elisa Ortensi, University of Milan - Bicocca
Onward migration is a rising issue in migration studies as a consequence of the growing complexity in migration patterns worldwide. This paper analyses historic and economic reasons behind the recent surge of onward migration from Southern European countries and, more specifically, Italy. Using 2014 ORIM data about short-term onward migration intentions and a logistic regression model, the paper explores factors that select aspirant onward migrants from Italy. The model tests the effects of socio-demographic and economic factors. The results of the study question the idea of citizenship as the highest level of integration in the host country and suggest that the recent wave of onward migration from Italy is mainly a reactive phenomenon triggered by the economic crisis. Most of all, this study explicitly underlines the role of gender in shaping intentions of short-term onward migration in Italy. The gender-sensible approach adopted in the present study shows the important role of women in the decision-making process of couples: female unemployment significantly increases intentions of onward migration, and the migration is also considered as an opportunity for the spouse and a gain in the economic prospects of the entire family. Conversely, female employment has a significant role in preventing onward migration.