Logic of Intervention for Maternity, Paternity and Parental Leaves in Poland

Izabela Grabowska, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography

The aim of the paper is to analyze three types of leaves connected with having small children in Poland as measures of public policy. In details logic of intervention for those measures will be analyzed. In particular I am going to analyse the maternity leave, paternity leave and parental leave . My research design is based on theory of intervention and theory driven evaluation (Chen 2005; Donaldson 2007; Pawson 2002; Petrosino et al. 2000, Górniak 2007; Ledzion et al. 2009; Olejniczak 2009). Those concepts treat each programme, project or a particular measure as a theory. It assumes that basing on particular resources and actions it will be possible to achieve expected permanent change. The theory of intervention consists of three parts: base theory, implementation theory and the theory of change. To meet the aim of the article for each measure (maternity/paternity/parental leave) I will reconstruct the base theory, implementation theory and the theory of change in two versions – as planned and real models. The differences of both models will be analyzed.

IzabelaGrabowska, PhD

WarsawSchool of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography

 

Logic of intervention formaternity, paternity and parental leave  in Poland

 

The aim  of the paper  isto analyze  three types of leaves connected with having small children inPoland as measures of public policy. In details logic of intervention for thosemeasures will be analyzed. In particular I am going to analyse the followingtypes of leaves:

-         Maternityleave – granted generally for women after delivering baby. In special cases a partof the maternity leave can be granted for fathers or other family members.Basic characteristics: from 20 to 37 weeks, paid, obligatory.

-         Paternityleave – granted for fathers of children up to 2 years old. Basic characteristics: 2 weeks, paid, not obligatory.

-         Parentalleave – granted after finishing maternity leave. Both parents can use them.Basic characteristics: from 32 to 34 weeks, paid, not obligatory.

My research design is based on theory of interventionand theory driven evaluation (Chen 2005; Donaldson 2007; Pawson 2002; Olejniczak2014). Those concepts treat each programme, project or a particular measure asa theory. It assumes that basing on particular resources and actions it will bepossible to achieve expected permanent change. This theory is verified inreality. The proposed research is aimed at verifying this theory for threetypes of leaves (maternity, paternity and parental) by pointing what haschanged, which elements proved to be effective and why (Weiss 1997).

The theory ofintervention consists of three parts: base theory, implementation theory andthe theory of change (Pic. 1)

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Pic.1 Logic model used to assess the publicintervention (based on the concept of the theory of intervention)

Source: own elaboration based on Olejniczak 2014, p.2.


The base theories areconnected with broader social and economic theories, earlier  institutional experience or other documents which were crucial for creating the assumptions of the analyzedmeasures. The theory of implementation is considered as an operational strategyused in implementing the measures. It encompasses the division of competencesbetween institutions engaged in implementing the measures, procedures,processes and work organization within the analyzed intervention. The theory ofchange can be described as assumptions taken by authors of the analyzed measureregarding the direction of influence of the measure.

Using the concept of thetheory of intervention I am going to create two types of logic models formaternity/paternity/parental leave as measures of family policy aimed atsupporting families with children. The first type of  models will reconstructthe logic of intervention taken by the authors of each analyzed measure. Thesecond type of models will reconstruct the real  logics of intervention – whichhappens in reality.

To meet the aim of thearticle for each measure (maternity/paternity/parental leave) I willreconstruct the base theory, implementation theory and the theory of change intwo versions – as  planned and real models. The differences of both models willbe analyzed.

To establish the base theory I am going to do a broaddesk research of maternity/paternity/parental leave regulations together withthe assessment of regulation impact and other documents/reportsmentioned as a base for setting analyzed regulations -  planned version oflogic model. The real model will be  supplemented  by  broad  literature review,which will include foreign  experience in using the analyzed measures. 

The implementation  theory will be establish based  onprocedures and regulations connected with the analyzed measures - planned  logicmodel. The real model will be supplemented by desk research of evaluation reports/audits of procedures connected with implementing of  those measures andby qualitative  in-depths interviews carried out with representatives ofinstitutions responsible for  their implementation, as well as with other stakeholders,such as employers.

The theory of change  in planned version willencompass all materials which were crucial for designing the analyzed measures.The real model will include own analysis based on individual data from Genderand Generation Survey in Poland (1st  and 2nd wave).  Indetails two   elements will be analyzed: the impact on procreation decisionsand their circumstances as well as the impact on the labour market situation ofpersons – users of the analyzed measures. The quantitative analysis will be supplementedby in-depth qualitative interviews with persons who use one of the analyzed measures.

Literature:

Chen, H.T. (2005).“Theory-Driven Evaluation”, w: Mathison, S. (red.) Encyclopedia of evaluation,s.415-419. Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: SAGE Publications. 

Donaldson, S.I. (2007).Program Theory-Driven Evaluation Science: Strategies and Applications. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Olejniczak, K. (2014). “Modele logiczne”;in: Ledzion, B., Olejniczak, K. & Rok, J. (ed.) Jak wzmacniaæ organizacyjneuczenie siê w administracji rz¹dowej, s.21-41. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo NaukoweScholar.

Pawson, R. (2002).Evidence-based Policy: The Promise of ‚Realist Synthesis’, Evaluation, 8(3),340-358.

Weiss, C.H. (1997). Howcan theory-based evaluation make greater headway?, Evaluation Review, 21(4),501-524.

 

Presented in Session 1234: Policy Issues