Gender Differences in Retirement Age in Spain: Education and Working Trajectories
Antía Dominguez Rodríguez, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics (CED)
Pau Miret-Gamundi, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics (CED)
Pilar Zueras, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics (CED)
Women retire later than men in Spain. This study aims at analysing gender differences in retirement timing in function of years of contribution and educational attainment. We hypothesise that a gender gap emerges as a result of different working trajectories between male and female. A gender gap is visible along the working biography especially among the studied cohorts, who have been retiring during the last decades. Although there are still differences in the share of labour market participation among men and women, the expansion of education and the softening of the gendered division of work have contributed to increasing female engagement in paid work across successive cohorts. In 2011 a reform of the Spanish Pension System gradually delayed the statutory pension age from 65 to 67 and increased the contribution period to access a complete pension from 35 to 38 years. We use survival analysis techniques to examine retirement timing by age, sex and year, and we compare, on the one hand, retirement timing in function of years of contribution and, on the other hand, of educational attainment. To do so, we use the Continuous Working Life Sample (MCVL in Spanish) -a 4% sample of the Spanish Social Security registers- to analyse the evolution of retirement of male and female between 2004 and 2016 by chronological age and by duration of formal labour careers (years contributed to the SS). Complementary, we use the ad-hoc modules for the Spanish Labour Force Survey (LFS) about the transition from work into retirement, carried out in 2006 and 2012, to analyse gender differences in age at retirement by educational attainment. Preliminary results show a reducing gender gap in retirement according to years contributed to the SS across time although differences in retirement timing persist, except among the highest educated men and women.