Sex-Mortality Differential By Age and Cause of Death in American Countries, 2000-2014

Bernardo Lanza Queiroz, Department of Demography – Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Julia Calazans, CEDEPLAR/UFMG

The objective of this study is to decompose the sex-mortality differential by age groups and cause of death in twelve American countries, between the years 2000 and 2014, using Pollard method. Preliminary results show that the age pattern of the sex-mortality differential is very similar across countries, with the more advanced ages have a greater impact. In addition, the young adult ages also has a significant participation on the sex-mortality differential, especially in countries with high mortality rates by violent causes and accidents. Cardiovascular diseases are the causes that most explain the mortality gap between females and males in Argentina, Canada, Chile, the United States of America and Uruguay while the accidents and violent causes are the causes that most explain the mortality gap between females and males in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay and Peru.

1 – INTRODUCTION

Although mortality has decrease substantiallyin most American countries since the begging of the 20th century, itis possible to observe the persistence of significant differentials inmortality level between demographic subgroups. One of the most importantdifferentials observed within countries is the difference in mortality betweenmales and females1, 2, 3, 4, 5. In addition to biologicaldifferences, socioeconomic and psychological factors are also relevant toexplain differences in mortality among the sexes6.

 The objective of this studyis to decompose the differential in life expectancy between males and femalesby age groups and cause of death in twelve American countries in the years2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014.

2 – DATA AND METHODS

It was used the mortalityinformation from Global Health Observatory data of the World HealthOrganization (GHO/WHO) for twelve countries (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile,Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, the United States ofAmerica and Uruguay) and seven causes of death (diabetes, respiratory diseases,cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, accidents and violent causes, HIV/AIDS andother infectious diseases).  The contribution of contribution of each agegroup and cause of death on the differential in life expectancy between malesand females was measured using the Pollard method7.

3 - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

3.1 – The sex-mortalitydifferential

TABLE 1 shows life expectancy atbirth for females and males as well as the difference among them. Paraguay andCanada present the lowest mortality differentials by sex while Brazil,Argentina and Colombia present the highest differentials. Over time, we can seethat the sex differential remains practically constant for Argentina, Brazil,Chile, Paraguay and Peru. On the other hand, there is a reduction of thedifferential by sex for Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, the United States of Americaand Uruguay. In Mexico, there is an increase on the differential by sex.

 

3.2 - Decomposition byage groups

The first point that deserves to beit is highlighted when we analyze the contribution of each age group on thedifferential in life expectancy at birth between females and males is that, ingeneral, all age groups have a positive contribution to the differential. Thatis, male mortality is higher than female mortality in all age groups. However,it is noticed that the most advanced ages are the most relevant to explain thesex-mortality differential. In addition, mortality among young adults also hasa significant participation, especially in Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguayand the United States of America. 

3.3 - Decomposition bycause of death

In this abstract, we analyzed onlythe contribution of each cause of death on the total mortality difference bysex. In the final version of the article, we will present the resultsdisaggregated by age groups.

In Argentina, Canada, Chile, theUnited States of America and Uruguay, the main cause of death that explains thesex-mortality differential are cardiovascular diseases while in Brazil,Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay and Peru, accidents and violentcauses are the causes that most explain the sex-mortality differential.However, it is important to note that for these countries, cardiovasculardiseases also play a relevant role.

Respiratory diseases and neoplasmsare also an important cause of over male mortality in the most of countries,especially in Argentina, Canada, Chile, the United States of America andUruguay, that is, the countries more advanced in the epidemiological transitionprocess in the continent.

HIV/AIDS and other infectiousdiseases also have a positive effect on the mortality differential among femalesand males. However, the contribution of these causes is smaller than otheranalyzed causes.

5 – REFERENCES

1.    United Nations. Patterns of sexdifferential in mortality in less developed countries. In: Sex differentials inmortality: trends, determinants and consequences. LOPEZ, & RUZICKA.Selection of the Papers presented at the ANU/UM/WHO Meeting held in Canberra(Australia), 1983

2.    Vallin. Sex patterns of mortality: acomparative study of model life tables and actual situations with specialreference to the cases of Algeria and France. In: Sex differentials inmortality: trends, determinants and consequences. LOPEZ & RUZICKA.Selection of the Papers presented at the ANU/UM/WHO Meeting held in Canberra(Australia), 1983.

3.    Shrestha. Population aging in developingcountries. Health Affairs. 19(3): p. 204-212. 2000

4.    Gee. Gender and Death. Encyclopedia ofDeath and Dying. New York: Macmillan Reference, 2002.

5.    Glei & Horiuchi (2007). Thenarrowing sex differential in life expectancy in high-income populations:effects of differences in the age pattern of mortality.Population Studies61(2),141-159.

6.    Case & Paxson . Sex differences inmorbidity and mortality. Demography, 42 (2): 189-214, 2005.

7.    Pollard. "The expectation of lifeand its relationship to mortality." Journal of the Institute of Actuaries109, no. 02 (1982): 225-240.

 

Presented in Session 1234: Mortality and Longevity